Washoe Learned American Sign Language
1 An animal that influenced scientific thought has died. A chimpanzee named Washoe and born in Africa died of natural causes late last month at the age of 42 at a research center in the American state of Washington. Wash0e had become known in the scientific community１ and around the world for her ability to use American Sign Language２. She was said to be the first non-human to learn a human language. Her skills also led to debate3 about primates and their ability to understand language.
2 Research scientists Allen and Beatrix Gardner began teaching Washoe sign language in 1966. In 1969, the Gardners7 described Washoe's progress in a scientific report. The people who experimented with Washoe said she grew to understand4 about 250 words. For example, Washoe made signs to communicate when it was time to eat. She could request foods like apples and bananas. She also asked questions like, "Who is coming to play?" Once5 the news about Washoe spread, many language scientists began studies of their own6 into this new and exciting area of research. The whole direction of primate research changed.
3 However, critics argued Washoe only learned to repeat sign language movements from watching her teachers. They said she had never developed true language skills. Even now, there are some researchers who suggest that primates learn sign language only by memory, and perform the signs only for prizes. Yet Washoe's keepers disagree. Roger Fouts is a former student of the Gardners7. He took Washoe to a research center in Ellensburg, Washington. There, Washoe taught sign language to three younger chimpanzees, which are still alive.
4 Scientists like private researcher Jane Goodall believes Washoe provided new information about the mental workings of chimpanzees8. Today, there are not as many scientists studying language skills with chimps. Part of the reason is that this kind of research takes a very long time.
5 Debate continues about chimps' understanding of human communication. Yet, one thing is sure -- Washoe changed popular ideas about the possibilities of animal intelligence.
chimpanzee n．黑猩猩 critic n．评论家，批评家
community n．社区，圈子 workings n．活动，运行
primate n．灵长类动物 chimp n．=chimpanzee
1. in the scientific community : 在科学界，在科学家的圈子里
2. American Sign Language(ASL): 美国手语。利用手、脸部表情、身体姿势表达思想的美国聋哑人语言。在加拿大、墨西哥等地也使用ASL。ASL与British Sign Language(BSL英国手语)不同，两者不能相互理解。
3. led to debate: 引起辩论。lead to意为“导致”，to为介词，debate为名词。
4. she grew to understand about 250 words: 她渐渐掌握约250个单词。9row t0是“渐渐”的意思。
5. Once : 一旦。0nce是连接词。例:Children like to cycle once they have learned how. 小孩一旦学会了如何骑自行车，就会喜欢上它。
6. of their own: 属于自己的。of their own的含义与on their own不同， on their own是“独自”的意思。
7. the Gardners: Gardner夫妇
8. Scientists like private researcher Jane Goodall believe...: 像个体研究者Jane Goodall这样的科学家相信……。like(像，跟……一样)是介词，本句的谓语是believe。句子中的private researcher意为“不受雇于任何单位，自己独立工作的科研人员。”
1. Paragraph 1 .
2. Paragraph 2 .
3. Paragraph 3 .
4. Paragraph 4 .
A Reason Why Not Many Scientists Carry out This Research Nowadays
B Report about Washoe's Progress in Learning Sign Language
C General Information about Washoe
D The Gardeners' Contributions Recognized
E Debate on Chimps' Intelligence
F Washoe's Love for Three Young Chimps
5. Washoe could make signs to communicate . 6. Some scientists doubted . 7. Washoe taught three younger chimps sign language . 8. The experimenters thought Washoe was intelligent .
A if the Gardeners' argument was sound
B because she was cleverer than other chimps
C when she wanted to eat
D while she was at a research center in Ellensburg
E because she could use sign language to ask for fruits
F while Washoe was learning sign language
1. C 第一段主要介绍猩猩Washoe的出生地、死亡年龄、被带到美国学习美式手语等一般情况。用General Information about Washoe来概括是很准确的。
2. B 第二段的关键句是In 1969, the Gardners described Washoe's progress in a scientific report.随后的句子简略的介绍了Washoe的学习情况和结果，如已学会了250个单词，并能用手语表达“该吃饭了”等概念。所以，Report about Washoe's Progress in Learning Sign Language(选项B)是答案。
3. E 第三段介绍了对Gardener夫妇发表的报告有两种不同的解读。一派认为Washoe的手语能力只是机械重复、死记硬背、物质激励的结果，不是智能的表现。另一派认为知识智能的表现，其证据是Washoe还能教三个小猩猩学习手语。争论的焦点是猩猩有没有智能。选项E用debate来概括上述争论，所以是答案。
4. A 第四段解释了为什么现在从事这项研究的科学家人数不多。部分原因是研究周期太长。
5. C 选C 的第四段第二句：Washoe made signs to communicate when it was time to eat.
6. A 第三段的上半段说了一些科学家对Gardener 夫妇的试验的解读所持怀疑态度。题干中出现的doubted引导我们选A。
7. D 选D DE 依据是第三段的最后一句,即“He took Washoe to a research center in Ellensburg, Washington. There, Washoe taught sign language to three younger chimpanzees, which are still alive.”
8. E 本文第二段谈到试验的成果时有一个句子：“She could request foods like apples and bananas”。根据全段意思和上述句子，选择E是正确的。